Chaparral in southern California is generally found on south-facing slopes of mountains and hillsides. On the Etiwanda Fan chaparral is located primarily on the upper slopes of the fan. The chaparral climate is characterized by annual rainfall of 14-25 inches primarily during winter, hot dry summers, and an 8-12 month growing season with 250-360 frost-free days. The dense vegetation of chaparral grows 3-10 feet tall and is fire adapted. Indicator species include Chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum). Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), Redberry (Rhamnus crocea), Scrub Oak (Quercus dumosa), Our Lord’s Candle (Yucca whipplei), Holly-leafed Cherry (Prunus ilicifolia), Ceanothus (Ceanothus spp.), and manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.).